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The Probiotic Research - Lactobacillus GG (Culturelle)
Copyright 2001 last updated 8.25.05

Articles - Alphabetical by Author

Alander M., Korpela R, Saxelin M, Vilpponen-Salmela T, Mattila-Sandholm T, and Von Wright A. 19
97. Recovery of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG from human colonic biopsies. Lett. Appl. Microb. 24:361-364.

Alander M, Satokori R, Korpela R, Saxelin M, Vilpponen-Salmella T, Mattila-Sandholm T, and Von Wright A. 1999. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 65 (1): 351-354.

Ahotupa M, Saxelin M, and Korpela R. 1996. Antioxidative properties of Lactobacillus GG. Nutr. Today 31(6) Suppl. 1, 51S-52S.

Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, Mykkanen H, Salminen S, Maunula L, and Isolauri E. 1999. Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children with respiratori infections: a randomized study. Prophylactic Pediatrcs104(5): e64.

Bennet RG, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR, Chang T-W, Laughon BE, Greenough III WB, and Bartlett JG. 1996. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhea with Lactobacillus GG. Nutrition Today 31 (6), Suppl. 1: 35S-38S.

Benno Y, He F, Hosoda M, Hashimoto H, Kojima T, Yamazaki K, Iino H, Mykkanen H, and Salminen S. 1996. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yoghurt on human intestinal microecology in Japanese subjects. Nutr. Today 31(6) Suppl. 1, 9S-11S.

Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, Buie TM, and Gorbach SL. 1995. Treatment of C. difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J. Ped. Gastroent. Nutr. 21:224-226.

Chauviere G, Coconnier M-H, Kerneis S, Fourniat J, and Servin AL. 1992. Adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. J. Gen. Microbiol. 138:1689-1696.

Coconnier M-H, Klaenhammer TR, Kerneis S, Bernet M-F, and Servin AL. 1992. Protein-mediated adhesion of Lactobacillus acidophilus BG2FO4 on human enterocyte and mucus secreting cell lines in culture. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 58(6):2034-2039.

Dong M-Y, Chang T-W, and Gorbach SL. 1987. Effect of feeding Lactobacillus GG on lethal irradiation in mice. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 7:1-7.

Donohue DC, Deighton M, Ahokas JT, and Salminen S. 1993. Toxicity of lactic acid bacteria. In Lactic Acid Bacteria. Salminene, S. and A. Von Wright (eds.) Marcel Dekker, Inc. New York. pp 307-313.

DuPont HL. 1997. Lactobacillus GG in prevention of traveler's diarrhea: an encouraging step. J. Travel Med. 4:1-2.

El-Nezami H, Kankanpaa P, Salminen S, and Ahokas J. 1998 a. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem. Toxicol. 36: 321-326.

El-Nezami H, Kankanpaa P, Salminen S, and Ahokas J. 1998 b. Physicochemical alterations enhance the ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to remove aflatoxin from contaminated media. J. Food Protect. 61: 466-468.

El-Nezami H, Salimen SJ, and Ahokas J. 1996. Biologic control of food carcinogens with use of Lactobacillus GG. Nutr. Today 31(6) Suppl. 1, 41S-42S.

Elo S, Saxelin M, and Salminen S. 1991. Attachment of lactobacillus casei strain GG to human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2: comparison with other dairy strains. Lett. Appli. Microbiol. 13:154-156.

Goldin BR, Gorbach SL, Saxelin M, Barakat S, Gualtieri L, and Salminen S. 1992. Survival of Lactobacillus species (strain GG) in human gastrointestinal tract. Dig. Dis. Sci. 37(1):121-128.

Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, and Moore RP. 1996. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of dimethylhydrazine-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr. Cancer. 25:197-204.

Gorbach SL, Chang TW, and Goldin BR. 1987. Successful treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. Lancet Dec. 26:1519.

Gronlund MM, Lehtonen OP, Kero P, Saxelin M, and Salminen S. 1997. Lactobacillus GG supplementation does not reduce faecal colonization of Klebsiella oxytoca in preterm infants. Acta Paediatr. 86:785-786.

Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Abu Zikri M, Amil Dias J, Gobio Casali L, Hoekstra A, Salazar De Sousa J, Sandhu B, Szajewska H, and Weizman Z. 2000. Lactobacillus GG Administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhoea: A multicenter European trial. J. Ped. Gastroent. Nutr. 30: 54-60.

Guarino A, Berni L, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, Albano F, and Di Benedetto L. 1997. Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhoea. J. Pediat. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 25:516-519.

Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Smith M, and Singer C. 1996. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a diarrheal preventative in travelers. J. Travel Med. 4:41-43.

Hilton E, Rindos P, and Isenberg HD. 1995. Lactobacillus GG vaginal suppositories and vaginitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 33(5):1433.

Hosoda M, He F, Hiramatu M, Hashimoto H, and Benno, Y. 1994. Effects of Lactobacillus GG strain intake on fecal microflora and defecation in healthy volunteers. Bifidus (Japan Bifidus Foundation) 8:21-28.

Hudult ALS, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard M-F, and Servin AL. 1997. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 63:513-518.

Isolauri E, Joensuu J, Suomalainen H, Luomala M, and Vesikari T. 1995. Improved immunogenicity of oral D x RRV reassortant rotavirus vaccine by Lactobacillus casei GG. Vaccine 13:310-312.

Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, Sillanaukee P, and Koivula T. 1991. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 88:90-97.

Isolauri E, Kaila, M, Arvola T, Majamaa H, Rantala I, Virtanen E, and Arvilommi H. 1993. Diet during rotavirus enteritis affects jejunal permeability to macromolecules in suckling rats. Pediatr. Res. 33:548-553.

Isolauri E, Kaila M, Mykkanen H, Ling WH, and Salminen S. 1994. Oral bacteriotherapy for viral gastroenteritis. Dig. Dis. Sci. 39(12):2595-2600.

Isolauri E, Majamaa H, Arvola T, Rantala I, Virtanen E, and Arvilommi H. 1993. Lactobacillus casei strain GG reverses increased intestinal permeability induced by cow milk in suckling rats. Gastroenterol. 105:1643-1650.

Jacobsen, C.N., Rosenfeldt Nielsen, V., Hayford, A.E., Moller, P.L., Michaelsen, K.F., Paerregaard, A., Sandstrom, B., Tvede, M., and Jakobsen, M. 1999. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 65(11): 4949-4956.

Jaskari, J., Kontula, P., Siitonen, A., Jousmies-Somer, H., Mattila-Sandholm, T., and Poutanen, K. 1998 Oat b-glucan and xylan hydrolysates as selective substrates for Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 49: 175-181.

Kaila, M., Isolauri, E., Saxelin, M., Arvilommi, H. and Veskari, T. 1995. Viable versus inactivated Lactobacillus strain GG in acute rotavirus diarrohea. Arch. Dis., Child. 72:51-53.

Kaila, M., Isolauri, E., Soppi, E., Virtanen, E., Laine, S. and Arvilommi, H. 1992. Enhancement of the circulating antibody secreting cell response in human diarrhea by a human Lactobacillus strain. Pediatr. Res. 32:141-144.

Kirjavainen, P.V., El-Nezami, H., Salminen, S., Ahokas, J., and Wright, P.F.A. 1999. Effects of orally administered viable Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii JS on mouse lymphocyte proliferation. Clin. Diagn. Labor. Immunol. 6 (6): 799-802.

Kirjavainen, P.V., Ouwehand, A.C., Isolauri, E., and Salminen, S. 1998. The ability of probiotic bacteria to bind to human intestinal mucus. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 167: 185-189.

Kirjavainen, P., Tuomola, E.M., Crittenden, R.G., Ouwehand, A.C., Harty, D.W., Morris, L.F., Rautelin, H., Playne, M.J., Donohue, D., and Salminen, S.J. 1999. In vitro adhesion and platelet aggregation properties of bacteremia-associated lactobacilli. Infect. Immunol. 67 (5): 2652-2655.

Kontula, P., Jaskari, J., Nollet, L., De Smet, I., Von Wrigh, A., Poutanen, K., and Mattila-Sandhom, T. 1998. The colonization of a simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem by a probiotic strain fed on a fermented oat bran product: effects on the gastrointestinal microflora. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 50: 246-252.

Kontula, P., Von Wright, A., Mattila-Sandholm, T. 1998. Oat bran b-gluco- and xylo-oligosaccharides as fermentative substrates for lactic acid bacteria. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 45: 163-169.

Korpela, R. Moilanen, E., Saxelin, M. and Vapaatalo, H. 1997. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) and platelet aggregation in vitro. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 37:83-86.

Korpela, R., Peuhkuri, K., Lahteenmaki, T., Sievi, E., Saxelin, M., Vapaatalo, H. 1997. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG shows antioxidative properties in vascular endothelial cell culture. Milchwissenschaft 52 (9): 503-505.

Lehto, E. M. and Salminen, S. 1996. Adhesion of twelve different Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures. Nutr. Today 31(6) Suppl. 1, 49S-50S.

Lehto, E. M. and Salminen, S. 1997a. Adhesion of two Lactobacillus strains, one Lactococcus and one Propionibacterium strain to cultured intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Biosci. Microflora. 16(1):13-17.

Lehto, E. M. and Salminen, S. 1997b. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium adhesion to Caco-2 cell cultures by Lactobacillus strain GG spent culture supernate: only a pH effect? FEMS Immuno. Med. Microbiol. 18:125-132.

Ling, W. H., Hanninen, O., Mykkanen, H. Heikura, M. Salminen, S. and Von Wright, A. 1992. Colonization and fecal enzyme activities after oral Lactobacillus GG administration in elderly nursing home residents. Ann. Nutr. Metab. 36:162-166.

Ling, W. H., Korpela, R., Mykkanen, H., Salminen, S. and Hanninen, O. 1994. Lactobacillus strain GG supplementation decreases colonic hydrolytic and reductive enzyme activities in healthy female adults. J. Nutr. 124:18-23.

Ling, W. H., Saxelin, M., Hanninen O. and Salminen, S. 1994. Enzyme profile of Lactobacillus Strain GG by a rapid API ZYM system.: a comparison of intestinal bacterial strains. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 7:99-104.

Majamaa, H. and Isolauri, E. 1997. Probiotics: A novel approach in the management of food allergy. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 99: 179-185.

Majamaa, H. Isolauri, E., Saxelin, M. and Vesikari, T. 1995. Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J. Pediatr. Gastroent. Nutr. 20:333-338.

Malin, M., Suomalainen, H. Saxelin, M. and Isolauri, E. 1996. Promotion of IgA immune response in patients with Crohn's disease by oral bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus GG. Ann. Nutr. Metabolism. 40:137-145.

Malin, M., Verronen, P., Mykkanen, H., Salminen, S., and Isolauri, E. 1996. Increased bacterial urease activity in feces in juvenile chronic arthritis: evidence of altered intestinal microflora? Br. J. Rheumatol. 35:689-694.

Malin, M., Verronen, P., Korhonen, H., Syvaoja, E-L., Salminen, S., Mykkanen, H., Arvilommi, H., Eerola, E., and Isolauri, E. 1997. Dietary therapy with Lactobacillus GG, bovine colostrum or bovine immune colostrum in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis: evaluation of effect on gut defense mechanisms. Inflammopharmacology. In 5:219-236.

Marini, A., Clerici-Bagozzi, D., Maglia, T., Casetta, P., and Negretti, F. 1997. Microbiological and immunological observations in the stools of preterm neonates orally treated with probiotic products. Note III: treatment with Lactobacillus GG. Dev. Physiopath. and Clin. 7: 87-94.

McCracken, A., and Timms, P. 1999. Efficiency of transcription from promoter sequence variants in Lactobacillus is both strain and context dependent. J. Bacteriol. 181 (20): 6569-6572.

Miettinen, M., Lehtonen, A., Julkunen, I., and Matikainen, S. 2000. Lactobacilli and Streptococci Activate NF-kB and STAT Signaling Pathways in Human Macrophages. J. Immunol. 164: 3733-3740.

Miettinen, M., Matikainen, S., Vuopio-Varkila, J., Pirhonen, J., Varkila, K., Kurimoto, M., and Julkunen, I. 1998. Lactobacilli and streptococci induce interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-18, and gamma interferon production in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Infect. Immun. 66 (12): 6058-6062.

Meurman, J. H., Antila, H., and Salminen, S. 1994. Recovery of Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103) from saliva of healthy volunteers after consumption of yogurt prepared with the bacterium. Microbial Ecol. Health Dis. 7:295-298.

Meurman, J. H., Antila, H., Korhonen, A. and Salminen, S. 1995. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG (ATCC 53103) on the growth of Streptococcus sobrinus in vitro. Eur. J. Oral Sci. 103:253-258.

Miettinen, M., Vuopio-Varkila, J. and Varkila, K. 1996. Production of human tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 is induced by lactic acid bacteria. Infection Immun. 64(12):5403-5405.

Millar, M. R., Bacon, C., Smith, S. L., Walker, V. and Hall, M. A. 1993. Enteral feeding of premature infants with Lactobacillus GG. Arch. Dis. Child. 69:483-487.

Naaber, P., Mikelsaar, R.-H., Salminen, S., and Mikelsaar, M. 1998. Bacterial translocation, intestinal microflora and morphological changes of intestinal mucosa in experimental models of Clostridium difficile infection. J. Med. Microbiol. 47: 1-8.

Nanji, A. A., Khettry, U. and Sadrzadeh, S. M. H. 1994. Lactobacillus feeding reduce endotoxemia and severity of experimental alcoholic liver (disease). P. S. E. M. B. 205:243-247.

Negretti, F., Casetta, P., Clerici-Bagozzi, D., and Marini, A. 1997. Researches on the intestinal and systemic immunoresponses after oral treatment with Lactobacillus GG in the rabbit. Developmental Physiophatology and Clinics 7: 15-21.

Nighswonger, B. D., Brashears, M. M. and Gilliland, S. E. 1996. Viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in fermented milk products during refrigerated storage. J. Dairy Sci. 79:212-219.

Oberhelman, R.A., Gilman, R.H., Sheen, P., Taylor, D.N., Black, R.E., Cabrera, L, Lescano, G., Meza, R., and Madico, G. 1999. A placebo-controlled trial of lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J. Pediatr. 134: 15-20.

Oksanen, P., Salminen, S., Saxelin, M., Hamalainen, P. Ihantola-Vormisto, A., Muurasniemi-Isoviita, L., Nikkari, S., Oksanen, T., Porsti, I., Salminen, E., Siitonen, S. Stuckey, H., Toppila, A. and Vapaatalo, H. 1990. Prevention of traveller's diarrohea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann. Med. 22:53-56.

Ouwehand, A.C., Isolauri, E., Kirjavainen, P.V., Tolkko, S., and Salminen, S. 2000. The mucus binding of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 is enhanced in the presence of Lactobacillus GG and Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 30: 10-13.

Ouwehand, A.C., Kirjavainen, P.V., Gronlund, M.-M., Isolauri, E., and Salminen, S.J. 1999. Adhesion of probiotic micro-organisms to intestinal mucus. Int. Dairy J. 9: 623-630.

Ouwehand, A.C., Niemi, P., and Salminen, S. 1999. The normal faecal flora does not affect the adhesion of probiotic bacteria in vitro. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 177: 35-38.

Pant, A. R., Graham, S. M., Allen, S. J., Harikul, S. , Sabchereon, A., Cuevas, L. and Hart, C. A. 1996. Lactobacillus GG and acute diarrhoea in young children in the tropics. J. Tropic. Pediatrics. 42:162-165.

Pelto, L., Isolauri, E., Lilius, E.-M., Nuutila, J., and Salminen, S. 1998. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin. Experiment. Allergy 28: 1474-1479.

Pelto, L.., Salimen, S.J., and Isolauri, E. 1996. Lactobacillus GG modulates milk-induced immune inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive adults. Nutr. Today 31(6) Suppl. 1, 45S-46S.

Pessi, T., Sutas, Y., Marttinen, A., and Isolauri, E. 1998. Probiotics reinforce mucosal degradation of antigens in rats: implications for therapeutic use of probiotics. J. Nutr. 128: 2313-2318.

Pessi, T., Sutas, Y., Saxelin, M., Kallioinen, H., and Isolauri, E. 1999. Antiproliferative effects of homogenates derived from five strains of candidate probiotic bacteria. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 65(11): 4725-4728.

Rautanen, T., Isolauri, E., and Vesikari, T. 1998. Management of acute diarrhoea with low osmolarity oral rehydration solutions and Lactobacillus GG. Arch. Dis. Child. 79: 157-160.

Rautio, M., Jousimies-Somer, H., Kauma, H., Pietarinen, I., Saxelin, M., Tynkkynen, S., and Koskela, M. 1999. Liver abscess due to a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin. Inf. Dis. 28: 1159-1160.

Raza, S., Graham, S. M., Allen, S. J., Sultana, S., Cuevas, L. and Hart, C. A. 1995. Lactobacillus GG promotes recovery from acute nonbloody diarrohea in Pakistan. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:107-111.

Rokka, T., Syvaoja, E.-L., Tuominen, J., and Korhonen, H 1997. Release of bioactive peptides by enzymatic proteolysis of Lactobacillus GG fermented UHT milk. Milchwissenschaft 52 (12): 675-678.

Ruseler-Van Embden, J. G. H., Van Lieshout, L. M. C., and Marteau, P. M. 1995. No degradation of intestinal mucus glycoproteins by Lactobacillus casei strain GG. Microecology and Therapy 25:304-309.

Ruseler-Van Embden, J. G. H., Van Lieshout, L. M. C., Gosselink, M. J. and Marteau, P. M. 1995. Inability of Lactobacillus casei strain GG, L. acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidum to degrade intestinal mucus glycoproteins. Scand. J. Gastroenterol. 30:675-680.

Salovaara H, Kontula P, Nieminen A, and Mantere-Alhonen S. 1993. Oat bran as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Progress in food fermentation Vol. X, Proceedings of Euro. Food Chem. VII, pp 314-317.

Sarem-Damerdji LO, Sarem F, Marchal L, and Nicolas JP. 1995. In vitro colonization ability of human mucosa by exogenous Lactobacillus strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 131:133-137.

Saxelin M, Ahokas M, and Salminen S. 1993. Dose response on the fecal colonization of Lactobacillus strain GG adminstered in two different formulations. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 6:119-122.

Saxelin M, Elo S, Salminen S, and Vapaatalo H. 1991. Dose response colonization of feces after oral administration of Lactobacillus casei strain GG. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 4:209-214.

Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chaasy B, Rautelin H, Makela PH, Salminen S, and Gorbach SL. 1996. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland, 1989-1992. Clin. Inf. Dis. 22:564-566.

Saxelin M, Pessi T, and Salminen S. 1995. Fecal recovery following oral administration of Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103) in gelatine capsules to healthy volunteers. Int. J. Food Microb. 25:199-203.

Saxelin M, Rautelin H, Salminen S, and Makela PH. 1996. The safety of commercial products with viable Lactobacillus strains. Inf. Dis. Clin. Prac. 5(5): 331-335.

Sepp E, Mikelsaar M, and Salminen S. 1993. Effect of administration of Lactobacillus casei strain GG on the gastrointestinal microbiota of newborns. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis. 6:309-314.

Sepp E, Tamm E, Torm S, Lutsar I, Mikelsaar M, and Salminen S. 1995. Impact of a Lactobacillus probiotic on the fecal microflora in children with shigellosis. Microecology and Therapy 23:74-80.

Sheen P, Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Cabrera L, Verastegui M, and Madico G. 1995. Short report: a placebo-controlled study of Lactobacillus GG colonization in one to three year old Peruvian children. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52(5):389-392.

Shornikova A-V, Isolauri E, Burkanova L, Lukovnikova S, and Vesikari T. 1997. A trial in the Karelian Republik of oral rehydration and Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhoea. Acta Paediatr. 86: 460-465.

Siigur U, Tamm E, Torm S, Lutsar L, Salminen S, and Midtvedt T. 1997. Effect of bacterial infection and administration of a probiotic on faecal short-chain fatty acids. Microbial Ecol. Health Dis. 9:271-277.

Siitonen S, Vapaatalo H, Salminen S, Gordin A, Saxelin M, Wikberg R, and A-Kirkkola L. 1990. Effect of Lactobacillus GG yogurt in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea. Ann. Med. 22:57-59.

Silva M, Jacobus NV, Deneke C, and Gorbach SL. 1987. Antimicrobial substance from a human Lactobacillus strain. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31(8):1231-1233.

Stansbridge EM, Walker V, Hall MA, Smith SL, Millar MR, Bacon C, and S Chen. 1993. Effects of feeding premature infants with Lactobacillus GG on gut fermentation. Arch. Dis. Child. 69:488-92.

Sutas Y, Hurme M, and Isolauri E. 1996. Downregulation of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scand. J. Immunol. 43:687-689.

Sutas Y, Soppi E, Korhonen H, Syvaoja E-L, Saxelin M, Rokka T, and Isolauri E. 1996. Suppression of lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by bovine caseins hydrolysed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 97: 216-224.

Tuomola EM, Ouwehand AC, and Salminen S. 1999. Human ileostomy glycoproteins as a model for small intestinal mucus to investigate adhesion of probiotics. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 28: 159-163.

Tuomola EM, Ouwehand AC, and Salminen S. 1999. The effect of probiotic bacteria on the adhesion of pathogens to human intestinal mucus. FEMS Immunol. Medic. Microbiol. 26: 137-142.

Tuomola EM, and Salminen S. 1998. Adhesion of some probiotic and dairy Lactobacillus strains to Caco-2 cell cultures. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 41: 45-51.

Tynkkynen S, Satokari R, Saarela M, Mattila-Sandholm T, and Saxelin M. 1999. Comparison of ribotyping, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analyses, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in typing of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and L. casei. Appl. Environm. Microbiol. 65 (9): 3908-3914.

Tynkkynen S, Singh K, and Varmanen P. 1998. Vancomycin resistance factor in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 41: 195-204.

Vahcic N, Hruskar M, and Ritz M. 1999. Aroma profiles and sensory evaluation of probiotic yoghurt. Eur Food Chem X, 22-24 Sept. -99, Budapest, Hungary

Vanderhoof JA, Whiney DB, Antonson DL, Hanner TL, Lupo JV, and Young RJ. 1999. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children. J. Pediatr. 135: 564-568.

Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, Dohnalek M, Farmer J, Roberts L, Hilty M, and Balish E. 1997. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on Candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect. Immun. 65: 4165-4172.

Wagner RD, Warner T, Roberts L, Farmer J, and Balish E. 1997. Colonization of congenitally immunodeficient mice with probiotic bacteria. Infect. Immun. 65: 3345-3351.

Yang Z, Suomalinen T, Mayra-Makinen A, and Huttunen E. 1997. Antimicrobial activity of 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid produced by lactic acid bacteria. J. Food Protect. 60 (7): 786-790.


Kaila M. 1993. Immune response evoked by cow milk products in health and during rotavirus diarrhoea. M. D. thesis. Acta Universitatis Tamperensis ser. A. vol. 376.

Korpela R. 1995. Role of rye fibre and Lactobacillus GG in colonic metabolism. Ph. D. thesis. Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Sciences 65.

Ling W. H. 1992. Effect of lactobacilli-containing vegan diet and Lactobacillus GG on colonic chemical loading in man. Ph. D. thesis. Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Sciences 5.

Majamaa H. 1996. Gut Mucosa barrier-target for probiotic therapy. M. D. thesis. Acta Universitatis Tamperensis. ser. A. vol. 476.

Saxelin M. 1995. Development of dietary probiotics: estimation of optimal Lactobacillus GG concentrations. Ph. D. thesis. Turku University, Dept. Biochemistry and Food Chemistry.

Sutas Y. 1996. Food allergy and atopic dermatitis in children. Studies on nutritional and immunologic treatments. Acta Universitatis Tamperensis ser. A. vol. 506.

Review Articles and Case Reports

Bennet RG, Gorbach SL, Goldin BR, Chang T-W, Laughon BE, Greenough III WB, and Bartlett JG. 1996. Treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhea with Lactobacillus GG. Nutrition Today 31 (6), Supplement 1:35S-38S.

ABSTRACT: The high success rate (30 of 32; 94%) of 32 patients treated with a lyophilized preparation of Lactobacillus GG for relapsing C. difficile diarrhea suggests that the probiotic strain is a safe and effective choice for treating such a form of diarrhea. The study was performed on 32 patients; 23 were outpatients treated in Boston, Massachusetts, and 9 were nursing-home patients in Baltimore, Maryland.

Donohue D, and Salminen S. 1996. Safety of probiotic bacteria. Asian Pacific J. Clin. Nutr. 5:25-28.

ABSTRACT: Probiotics, which have a long history of safe use in dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria, counteract harmful and potentially disease causing bacteria in the intestinal tract. As the interest in health promotion and disease prevention has been rekindled in recent years, so has the interest in broadening the range of foods containing probiotic organisms. However, before newer, less "traditional" forms of probiotics can be incorporated into a wider variety of food products, they should be assessed and tested for the safety and efficacy of their proposed use. By using a panel of in vitro methods, animal models, and human subjects, different aspects of the safety of probiotics can be effectively determined.

Elmer GW, Surawicz CM, and McFarland LV. 1996. Biotherapeutic agents. A neglected modality for the treatment and prevention of selected intestinal and vaginal infections. JAMA, 275:870-876.

ABSTRACT: Efforts to decrease the reliance of antimicrobials have paved the way for therapeutic applications of biotherapeutic agents. Evidence now exists showing that administration of selected microorganisms can aid in the treatment and prevention of certain intestinal and, perhaps, vaginal infections. Although many of the placebo-controlled studies consisted of testing only small numbers of patients or volunteers, they have shown that biotherapeutic agents were successful in preventing acute infantile diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and other various diarrheal illnesses. The objective of this article is to weigh the potential benefits of these biotherapeutic agents.

Goldin BR. 1996. The metabolic activity of the intestinal microflora and its role in colon cancer: Lactobacillus and other factors that alter intestinal metabolic activity. Nutrition Today 31(6), Supplement 1: 24S-27S.

ABSTRACT: The formation and growth of colonic tumor cells, as well as the generation of other carcinogens and mutagens can sometimes be attributed to bacterial enzymatic reactions in the human intestinal tract. However, animal, as well as human tissue studies offer evidence that probiotic lactic-acid bacteria and food products containing these organisms can actually inhibit the formation and growth of such tumor cells. Lactobacillus GG, the most extensively researched strain of probiotics, was administered in the above mentioned studies.

Gorbach SL. 1990. Lactic acid bacteria and human health. Ann. Med. 22:37-41.

ABSTRACT: Numerous studies in a number of areas support the claims of health and nutritional benefits made for lactobacilli in fermented dairy products. Direct measurements of vitamin synthesis and feed efficiency when fermented products are fed to animals confirm that fermentation of food by lactobacilli increases access to the nutrients in the food via enhanced availability, digestion, and assimilation. Some studies show that a variety of fermented dairy products can reduce serum cholesterol levels in both animals and humans. Persons with lactase deficiency appear to tolerate yogurt. Some fermented dairy products appear to provide protection against tumor growth and chemically induced tumors in animals. A number of intestinal infections, including those caused by salmonella and shigella, and antibiotic-associated diarrhea may be prevented or treated by fermented dairy products and lyophilized lactobacilli preparations. Lactobacillus GG can be used to treat recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

Gorbach SL. 1996. Efficacy of Lactobacillus in treatment of acute diarrhea. Nutrition Today 31(6) Supplement 1:19S-23S.

ABSTRACT: There are a number of causes with regard to one's suffering from diarrhea, including traveler's diarrhea, antibiotic-associated diarrhea, and rotavirus diarrhea in children among several others. Lactobacillus GG, the most extensively studied strain of probiotics, has shown to be effective in both preventing and treating these forms of diarrhea.

Gorbach SL. 1996. The discovery of Lactobacillus GG. Nutrition Today 31(6) Supplement 1:2S-4S.

ABSTRACT: Although the promotion of Probiotics, and more specifically Lactobacillus GG, as a way maintain good health might seem novel, research showing its benefits can be traced back to the turn of this century. Perserverence in the pursuit of discovering new applications of Lactobacillus GG will undoubtedly benefit humankind.

Isolauri E. 1995. Lactobacilli in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders in children. IDF Nutrition Newsletter 5:31.

Isolauri E. 1995. The treatment of cow's milk allergy. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 49 Suppl. 1 S49-S55.

Isolauri E. 1996. Studies on Lactobacillus GG in food hypersensitivity disorders. Nutrition Today 31 (6) Supplememnt 1:28S-31S.

ABSTRACT: As a result of intestinal inflammation, a greater amount of antigens may traverse the mucosal barrier, thus becoming an important risk factor for the development of allergic disorders. It has been shown that Lactobacillus GG and other probiotic microorganisms help reinforce the barrier effect in the gut. The results of the studies in this article show that the capabilities of such probiotics may introduce immunotherapy as a new approach for the early management of allergic diseases.

Kaila M, and Isolauri E. 1996. Nutritional management of acute diarrhoea. Nutrition Today 31 Supplement 1:16S-18S.

ABSTRACT: Not only does the present report show that the resumption of normal, age-appropriate feeds should be resumed as soon as possible following acute childhood diarrhea, but probiotic treatment in the form of a fermented milk may enhance recovery. Lactobacillus GG, which through extensive studies has been shown to be both safe and useful, is recommended in the dietary therapy of acute diarrhea.

Lee, Y-K, and Salminen S. 1995. The coming age of probiotics. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6:241-245.

Marteau P, and J-C Rambaud. 1993. Potential of using lactic acid bacteria for therapy and immunomodulation in man. FEMS. Microbiol. Rev. 12:207-220.

Rabalais GP. 1996. Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases. 9:210-213.

Renner E. (IDF Group F20). 1993. Role of cultured and culture-containing dairy products in health. Brief review of literature 1992. IDF Newsletter 2:11-14.

Saavedra JM. 1995. Editorial: Microbes to fight microbes: A not so novel approach to controlling diarrheal disease. Pediatr. Gastroenter. Nutr. 21:125-129.

Salminen S. 1994. Fermented dairy products, intestinal microflora and health. Isolauri, E. Lactic acid bacteria and the immune response. Korhonen. Bioactive compounds in fermented milks. Mykkanen. Fermented dairy products and colon cancer-related enzymes. Mikelsaar. Lactobacillar probiotics and intestinal microecology. Salminene, S. and R. Tanaka. Role of cultured and culture-containing dairy products in health. IDF Newsletter 3:10-15.

Salminen S. 1994. Healthful properties of Lactobacillus GG. Dairy Ind. Int. 60:36-37.

Salminen S. 1996. Editorial: The first functional probiotic food. Nutrition Today 31(6) Supplement 1:1S.

Salminen S, and E Isolauri. 1995. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus GG; ATCC 53103) as a functional ingredient for medical and clinical foods. Lactic acid bacteria, Lactic 94, Caen, 7-9 September, 1994.

ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus GG, the most extensively studied strain of probiotics, has proven to be useful in functional foods aiming at balancing and promoting gut local defense system, as well as enhancing the ability of the intestinal immune system to resist infection. Lactobacillus GG, which is also suitable for fermented milks and yogurt-type products, is useful in an overall way to promote a healthy intestinal tract.

Salminen S, and R Tanaka. 1995. Annual review on cultured milks and probiotics. IDF Nutrition Newsletter 4:47-50.

ABSTRACT: The health benefits as well as the safety of several probiotic strains have been confirmed by recent advances in probiotic research and cultured milk. Results suggests that these forms of probiotics might play a role in the activation of the immune system including tumor inhibition, the immune response of lymphocytes from colorectal cancer patients was enhanced, and the stimulation of calcium absorption which helps prevent bone loss, among other benefits. Since no firm guidelines exist for safety testing of these strains of probiotics, safety assessment should include basic toxicology and degradation of intestinal mucus, among other studies.

Salminen S, and Tanaka R. 1996. Role of cultured and culture-containing dairy products and probiotic bacteria in health and disease. IDF Nutrition Newsletter 5:32-4.

Salminen S, and Deighton M. 1992. Lactic acid bacteria in the gut in normal and disordered states. Chemotherapy 41 Suppl. 1:5-15.

Salminen S, Isolauri E, and Salminen S. 1996. Clinical uses of probiotics for stabilizing the gut mucosal barrier: successful strains and future challenges. Antonie van Leeuenhoek 70:347-358.

ABSTRACT: Common background characteristics for many intestinal disturbances such as food allergy and rotavirus diarrhea facilitate sufficient use of probiotic bacteria. In all such disesase states, different types of intestinal inflammation are present including altered intestinal microflora and impaired gut barrier. Probiotic microorganisms through extensive studies, appear to be highly beneficial for the treatment of clinical conditions with abnormal altered gut mucosal barrier functions.

Salminen S, Laine M, Von Wright A, Vuopio-Varkila J, Korhonen T, and Mattila-Sandholm T. 1996. Development of selection criteria for probiotic strains to assess their potential in functional foods: a Nordic and European approach. Biosci. Microflora 15 (2):62-67.

ABSTRACT: Nordic and European achievements have played a key role in the development of new and more effective probiotic strains. This review summarizes these achievements, as well as future plans in the assessment of new and novel methodologies for strain selection. Some of these include adhesion, colonization, antigentoxic properties. The data obtained from these methodologies will further enhance the potential of the probiotic strains and their evolvement.

Salminen S, Salminen K, and Gorbach SL. 1991. Lactobacillus GG (Gefilac™) fermented whey drink and yoghurt. Scand. Dairy Inf. 3:66-67.

Salminen S, and Donohue DC. 1996. Safety assessment of Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103). Nutrition Today 31 (6) Supplement 1:12S-15S.

ABSTRACT: When compared with other probiotic strains, Lactobacillus GG is one of the best-documented strains with regard to safety and efficacy. Extensive studies including toxicology tests, in vivo and in vitro conditions, and epidemiologic surveillance show that the strain is not only safe, but very useful in its intended use as a way to promote a healthy intestinal tract.

Salminen S, and M Saxelin. 1996. Comparison of successful probiotic strains. Nutrition Today 31 (6) Supplement 1:32S-34S.

ABSTRACT: Studies have shown probiotic bacteria have potential in the treatment of clinical conditions with altered gut mucosal barrier functions. However, it is important that each probiotic strain be studied and evaluated on its own merit, and demonstrated separately in planned and controlled human studies. Although closely related strains may have different mechanisms of action, their properties may form a common foundation for future probiotics.

Saxelin M. 1996 Colonization of the human gastrointestinal tract by probiotic bacteria. Nutrition Today 31 (6) Supplement 1:5S-8S.

ABSTRACT: Lactobacillus GG is an adherent probiotic strain with the ability to colonize in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, studies in fecal recovery show that milk substances seem to protect the bacteria in the stomach more effectively than when administered as a food supplement. Such studies have verified efficacy and the dose needed for fecal recovery.

Saxelin M. 1997. Lactobacillus GG - a human probiotic strain with thorough clinical documentation. Food Rev. Internat. 13(2):293-313.

Other References

Chaitow L, and Trenev N. Probiotics: the revolutionalry 'friendly bacteria' way to vital health and well-being (Wellingborough, England.: Thorsons Publishing Group, 1990), 13, 48, 156-158.

Heck JE, and Cohen MB. 1993. Traveler's diarrhea. American Family Physician. 48(5):793.

Ives CW, and C Hines. 1993. Common causes commonly not considered; diarrhea. Consultant. 33(12):95.

Book LS. 1984. Vomiting and diarrhea. Pediatrics 74 (Supplement):950-954.

NOTE: Probiotics and/or Lactobacillus GG are not intended to diagnose, mitigate, treat, cure or prevent any specific disease or class of diseases.