Antiviral/anti-microbial Components of Dairy
last updated 8.25.05
Development of a topical vaginal microbicide: lessons learned from human milk.
[Notes: This show how very quickly and very effectively the anti-viral dairy properties work destroying viruses...within seconds!]
Isaacs CE, Pullarkat R, Kascsak R
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2001;501:223-32. PMID: 11787685
Vaccines are not presently available to prevent adherence and transmission of many common pathogens at mucosal surfaces. As a result, sexually transmitted diseases were one of the most commonly reported infections in the US in 1999. New methods are needed to reduce the spread of mucosal infections. Providing nonspecific protective factors, such as lipids and retinoids found in human milk to mucosal surfaces could reduce mucosal infection caused by viruses, e.g., herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Human milk lipids enzymatically modified to produce monoglycerides were antimicrobial and inactivated enveloped viruses, as well as gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Enveloped viruses were inactivated in seconds following contact with antimicrobial lipids, and P. aeruginosa infectivity was reduced by 99.9% after 2 hours. Transmission of pathogens at mucosal surfaces can also be prevented using retinoids that inhibit viral replication. In a human embryonic intestinal cell line the retinoic acid (RA) derivatives all-trans-RA and 9-cis-RA (10 microg/mL) decreased the production of HSV-1 and Echo-6 viruses by 1-2 log10 over a 48-hour period. In addition, all-trans-RA inhibited HSV-1 replication in Vero cells as effectively as interferon beta, reducing viral production by 2.5log10. These studies indicate that lipids and retinoids could be part of a topical microbicide to prevent mucosal infections.
Antimicrobial activity of lipids added to human milk, infant formula, and bovine milk.
[Notes: This looks at whether the antiviral properties in dairy are in all sources of dairy and/or can be added to dairy or formula for additional pathogen protection. Notice the list of viruses that were found to be destroyed by dairy components.]
Isaacs CE, Litov RE, Thormar H.
J Nutr Biochem. 1995 Jul;6(7):362-366. PMID: 12049996
Lipids previously shown to have antiviral and antibacterial activity in buffers were added to human milk, bovine milk, and infant formulas to determine whether increased protection from infection could be provided to infants as part of their diet. Fatty acids and monoglycerides with chain lengths varying from 8 to 12 carbons were found to be more strongly antiviral and antibacterial when added to milk and formula than long chain monoglycerides. Lipids added to milk and formula inactivated a number of pathogens including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), Haemophilus influenzae, and Group B streptococcus. The results presented in this study suggest that increased protection from infection may be provided to infants at mucosal surfaces, prior to the digestion of milk and formula triglycerides, by the addition of antimicrobial medium chain monoglycerides to an infant's diet.
Advances in nutritional modifications of infant formulas.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Jun;77(6):1550S-1554S. PMID: 12812153
Modifications to infant formulas are continually being made as the components of human milk are characterized and as the nutrient needs of diverse groups of infants are identified. Formulas with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids added in amounts similar to those in human milk have recently become available in the United States; infants fed these formulas or human milk have higher tissue concentrations of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and reportedly have better visual acuity than do infants fed nonsupplemented formulas. Selenium, an important antioxidant, is present in higher concentrations in human milk than in non-fortified cow milk-based formula, and the selenium intakes of infants fed nonfortified formulas are reported to be at or below recommended levels. Blood selenium concentrations and plasma glutathione peroxidase activity are higher in infants fed selenium-supplemented formulas or human milk than in infants fed non-fortified formulas. Nucleotides and their related products play key roles in many biological processes. Although nucleotides can be synthesized endogenously, they are considered "conditionally essential." Nucleotide concentrations in human milk are higher than in unsupplemented cow milk-based formulas, and studies in animals and human infants suggest that dietary nucleotides play a role in the development of the gastrointestinal and immune systems. Formulas for preterm infants after hospital discharge are designed to meet the needs of a population in whom growth failure is common. Several studies have shown that preterm infants fed nutrient-enriched formulas after hospital discharge have higher rates of catch-up growth than do infants fed standard term-infant formulas.
In vivo antimicrobial and antiviral activity of components in bovine milk and colostrum involved in non-specific defence.
[Notes: Benficial properties in casein. Other benefits in dairy]
van Hooijdonk AC, Kussendrager KD, Steijns JM.
Br J Nutr. 2000 Nov;84 Suppl 1:S127-34. PMID: 11242457
The in vivo evidence of the antimicrobial and antiviral activity of bovine milk and colostrum derived components are reviewed with special emphasis on lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase. Their mode of action and the rationale for their application in efficacy trials with rodents, farm animals, fish and humans, to give protection against infectious agents, are described. A distinction is made between efficacy obtained by oral and non-oral administration of these non-specific defence factors which can be commercially applied in large quantities due to major achievements in dairy technology. From the in vivo studies one can infer that lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase are very promising, naturally occurring antimicrobials for use in fish farming, husbandry, oral hygiene and functional foods. Other promising milk-derived compounds include lipids, from which anti-infective degradation products are generated during digestion, and antimicrobial peptides hidden in the casein molecules.
Biodefense properties of milk: the role of antimicrobial proteins and peptides.
[Notes: Lists beneficial properties in dairy, specifically mentions casein and peptides.]
Clare DA, Catignani GL, Swaisgood HE.
Curr Pharm Des. 2003;9(16):1239-55. PMID: 12769734
Mammary fluids, colostrum and milk, deliver nature's first host defense systems upon birth, and these essential liquids are critical for survival of the neonate. The identification and characterization of anti-infectious proteins were among the early scientific discoveries and this group of proteins has long been recognized for promoting health benefits in both newborns and adults. Among the more widely studied are the immunoglobulins, lactoperoxidase, lysozyme, and lactoferrin. Recently, it was shown that alpha--lactalbumin may also function in a protective capacity dependent upon its folding state. Some of these, especially lactoferrin, also display an immunomodulatory role in which case a totally separate cascade of host defense responses is initiated. It was noted that the mechanism of action for this cluster of sentry proteins does vary; thus, this protective strategy provides for a broad range of responsive reactions to infection. Presently, there is a major focus on the discovery of novel peptides that can be generated from existing milk proteins via proteolytic reactions. To date, this substrate list includes alpha--lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, all casein fractions, and lactoferrin. Again, the immunoregulatory effects prompted as a result of the appearance of these peptides are currently being defined. Herein, we review the principal biological properties associated with each of these contributing milk components with a special emphasis on the role of biodefensive milk peptides. We envision future contributions emerging from this research field as an opportunity to develop effective new therapies to be used in treating infectious diseases and promoting health benefits in vivo.
Protective function of proteins and lipids in human milk.
[Notes: Describes the multiple modes of action which dairy protects against pathogens.}
Hamosh M.Biol Neonate. 1998;74(2):163-76. PMID: 9691157
Human milk provides the infant with protection against infectious diseases. This protection is conferred through several mechanisms: specific antibody targeted protection against pathogens in the infant's environment (through milk IgA, IgG, and IgM) and broad-spectrum, nonspecific protection provided through several distinct mechanisms. These are: bactericidal effects (lactoferrin), bacteriostatic action (lactoferrin, lysozyme), lysis of microorganisms (lysozyme), antiviral effects (lactoferrin, products of milk fat digestion), antiprotozoan activity (free fatty acids produced during gastric and intestinal digestion of milk fat), and ligand action (inhibition of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to gastric mucosa by kappa-casein). In addition to these protective functions of the proteins and lipids of human milk, several enzymes present in human milk might provide protection by generating components that are bactericidal (bile salt dependent lipase, peroxidase), prevent inflammatory reactions (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase), or protect the integrity of milk proteins (antiproteases).
Antiviral activities of lactoferrin.
[Notes: Benefits of lactoferrin, specific viruses it acts on, and modes of action.]
van der Strate BW, Beljaars L, Molema G, Harmsen MC, Meijer DK.
Antiviral Research 2001 Dec;52(3):225-39. PMID: 11675140
Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Delivery, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), A. Deusinglaan 1, 9713 AV Groningen, The Netherlands.
Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron binding glycoprotein that is present in several mucosal secretions. Many biological functions have been ascribed to LF. One of the functions of LF is the transport of metals, but LF is also an important component of the non-specific immune system, since LF has antimicrobial properties against bacteria, fungi and several viruses. This review gives an overview of the present knowledge about the antiviral activities and, when possible, the antiviral modes of action of this protein. Lactoferrin displays antiviral activity against both DNA- and RNA-viruses, including rotavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, herpes viruses and HIV. The antiviral effect of LF lies in the early phase of infection. Lactoferrin prevents entry of virus in the host cell, either by blocking cellular receptors, or by direct binding to the virus particles.
Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders.
Playford RJ, Macdonald CE, Johnson WS.
Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jul;72(1):5-14. PMID: 10871554
Colostrum is the specific first diet of mammalian neonates and is rich in immunoglobulins, antimicrobial peptides, and growth factors. In this article we review some of these constituents of human and bovine colostrum in comparison with those of mature milk. Recent studies suggest that colostral fractions, or individual peptides present in colostrum, might be useful for the treatment of a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug-induced gut injury, and chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We therefore discuss the therapeutic possibilities of using whole colostrum, or individual peptides present in colostrum, for the treatment of various gastrointestinal diseases and the relative merits of the 2 approaches.
Bovine colostrum in oral treatment of enterogenic endotoxaemia in rats.
[Notes: Specific action against bacteria and their toxins in the gut.]
Dohler JR, Nebermann L.
Crit Care. 2002 Dec;6(6):536-9. Epub 2002 Sep 25. PMID: 12493077
INTRODUCTION: Under conditions of shock, bacteria and endotoxins in the intestines can traverse the mucosal barrier by translocation and enter the blood and lymphatic system. Immunoglobulins and lactoferrin have been reported to neutralize endotoxins and bacteria. We studied the essential therapeutic factors of colostrum products in an animal experiment. METHOD: We simulated endotoxaemia by per-oral administration of a suspension of Escherichia coli and antibiotics into the duodenum of anaesthetized rats after giving intraperitoneal carrageenan. At the same time, pure bovine colostrum or lactoferrin-enriched bovine colostrum was given. Therapeutic effects were studied by examining plasma endotoxin activity and bacterial contamination of mesenterial lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages. Albumin was used in a control group. RESULTS: The most effective bovine colostrum was able to reduce the maximum plasma endotoxin value by 67% as compared with the albumin group. The combination of this colostrum with lactoferrin brought about a reduction by 80%. The reduction in bacterial contamination of lymph nodes and peritoneal lavages was also evident. CONCLUSION: Both gammaglobulin and lactoferrin may help to eliminate endotoxins when bovine colostrum is administered into the gut in conditions of septic shock.
[The efficacy of using an immune lactoglobulin preparation for correcting intestinal dysbacteriosis in newborn infants]
Kushnareva MV, Keshishian ES, Soboleva SV.
Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 1995 Mar-Apr;(2):101-4. PMID: 7653120
The comparative study of the effectiveness of immune immunoglobulin and bifidumbacterin for the correction of dysbiotic microflora in the intestine of premature born children with infectious inflammatory diseases. Immune lactoglobulin was administered orally to 37 children in a dose of 500 mg/kg twice a day for 1-3 weeks. The preparation facilitated the rapid and stable normalization of disturbances in the intestinal biocenosis in 86.5% of newborns. The elimination of opportunistic lactose-negative enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa hemolytic forms of Escherichia from the digestive tract and the stimulation of the multiplication of lactic acid bacteria were noted. The treatment of newborns with immune lactoglobulin was found to give a more pronounced corrective effect with respect of intestinal microflora than the use of bifidumbacterin according to the traditional scheme.