Research on Enzymes Helping to Control Yeast
References are listed below. Complete abstracts and text for the first 15 studies available through Pubmed or Medline. Abstracts provided for others. last updated 8.25.05

1: Purification and properties of an enzyme, zymolyase, which lyses viable yeast cells.
Kitamura K, Yamamoto Y.
Arch Biochem Biophys. 1972 Nov;153(1):403-6.
PMID: 4568261 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

2: Crystalline enzyme which degrades the cell wall of living yeast.
Yamamoto S, Shiraishi T, Nagasaki S.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1972 Mar 10;46(5):1802-9.
PMID: 4552458 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

3. [Mycoses. Pathogenicity and diagnosis of dermatophytes, yeasts and molds]
Gedek B.
Fortschr Med 1977 Mar 24;95(12):815-22
PMID: 15935 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

4. Fungicidal activity of latex sap from Carica papaya and antifungal effect of D(+)-glucosamine on Candida albicans growth.
Giordani R, Cardenas ML, Moulin-Traffort J, Regli P.
Mycoses 1996 Mar-Apr;39(3-4):103-10
Laboratoire de Chimie Bacterienne (LCB), CNRS, Marseille, France.
PMID: 8767002 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

5. Antifungal action of Carica papaya latex: isolation of fungal cell wall hydrolysing enzymes.
Giordani R, Siepaio M, Moulin-Traffort J, Regli P.
Mycoses 1991 Nov-Dec;34(11-12):469-77
PMID: 1824416 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

6. A synergistic effect of Carica papaya latex sap and fluconazole on Candida albicans growth.
Giordani R, Gachon C, Moulin-Traffort J, Regli P.
Mycoses 1997 Dec;40(11-12):429-37
Laboratoire de Botanique, Cryptogamie et Biologie Cellulaire, Universite de la Mediterranee, Faculte de Pharmacie, Marseille, France.
PMID: 9470408 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

7. Glycosidic activities of Candida albicans after action of vegetable latex saps (natural antifungals) and isoconazole (synthetic antifungal).
Giordani R, Moulin-Traffort J, Regli P.
Mycoses 1991 Jan-Feb;34(1-2):67-73
Centre de Biochimie et de Biologie Moleculaire, CNRS, Marseille, France.
PMID: 1922192 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

8. Enzymatic basis for protection of fish embryos by the fertilization envelope.
Kudo S.

Experientia 1992 Mar 15;48(3):277-81
Department of Anatomy, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, Japan.
PMID: 1547861 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

9. Enzymes that hydrolyze fungal cell wall polysaccharides. II. Purification and properties of mycodextranase, an endo- -D-(1 leads to 4) glucanase from Penicillium melinii.
Tung KK, Rosenthal A, Nordin JH.
J Biol Chem 1971 Nov 25;246(22):6722-36
PMID: 4108250 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

10. The separation of beta-glucanases produced by Cytophaga johnsonii and their role in the lysis of yeast cell walls.
Biochem J. 1970 Nov;120(1):67-78.
PMID: 5494230 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

11. Crystalline enzyme which degrades the cell wall of living yeast.
Mycopathologia 1998;142(3):119-23

12. Effects of date extract on adhesion of Candida species to human buccal epithelial cells in vitro.
Abu-Elteen KH.
J Oral Pathol Med. 2000 May;29(5):200-5.
PMID: 10801036 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

13. Antifungal action of latex saps from Lactuca sativa L. and Asclepias curassavica L.
Moulin-Traffort J, Giordani R, Regli P.
Mycoses. 1990 Jul-Aug;33(7-8):383-92.
PMID: 2090937 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

14. Fungitoxicity of muramidase. Ultrastructural damage to Candida albicans.
Marquis G, Montplaisir S, Garzon S, Strykowski H, Auger P.
Lab Invest. 1982 Jun;46(6):627-36.
PMID: 7045520 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

15. Bromelain is an accelerator of phagocytosis, respiratory burst and Killing of Candida albicans by human granulocytes and monocytes.
Brakebusch M, Wintergerst U, Petropoulou T, Notheis G, Husfeld L, Belohradsky BH, Adam D.
Eur J Med Res. 2001 May 29;6(5):193-200. PMID: 11410400

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of immuno modulating agents like bromelain and trypsin (e.g. Wobenzym on granulocyte and monocyte functions in healthy volunteers and patients with disorders of the humoral immuno system X-linked agammaglobulinaemia (XLA) and common variable immuno deficiency (CVID) and to find out whether the unspecific immunity could be improved by these enzymes. METHODS: In a whole-blood assay kinetics of phagocytosis, respiratory burst and killing (PBK) were measured in blood samples incubated with and without bromelain and trypsin (B/T) using Candida albicans as target organism. The time-reaction curves were analysed determining their gradient (T1) and their onset (T2) as well as the half effect time (HET). RESULTS: Phagocytes from patients with XLA showed a significantly accelerated basal phagocytosis (reduction of HET by 24% p < 0.001) compared to healthy controls. After incubation with B/T (10 microg/ml each) speed of phagocytosis was nearly doubled (phagocyte activity p < 0.0001, Candida uptake p < 0.003), T2 of respiratory burst was reduced by 65 % (p < 0.0001) and killing was accelerated by 27% (p < 0.046). However, the maximal activities of all kinetics were not altered. Incubation of phagocytes from healthy controls with B/T accelerated phagocytosis to a level comparable to that of untreated phagocytes from patients with XLA and also accelerated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (reduction of HET by 28%, p < 0.012). In contrast to phagocytes from patients with XLA, phagocytes of patients with CVID showed a similar stimulation by B/T like healthy controls. Further experiments with the single substances showed that bromelain was the active compound. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest, that bromelain possesses immuno stimulatory properties. Phagocytes of XLA patients appear to be particularly susceptible to this stimulation.

16. In vitro binding of Candida albicans yeast cells to human fibronectin.

Skerl KG, Calderone RA, Segal E, Sreevalsan T, Scheld WM.
Can J Microbiol. 1984 Feb;30(2):221-7. PMID: 6370399

The binding of Candida albicans yeast cells to human fibronectin (Fn), a major glycoprotein of mammalian cells, was studied using an in vitro assay. Adherence was quantitated in microtiter dishes coated with Fn to which radiolabeled yeast cells were added. Under optimum conditions of the assay, i.e., 1 mM CaCl2 and 70 micrograms Fn protein, approximately 40% of the radiolabeled yeast cells adhered to the Fn. Adherence to Fn was greater at 30 degrees C than at 4 degrees C and was greater with viable yeast cells than with heat-killed cells. Candida albicans (two strains) and C. tropicalis adhered to Fn to a greater extent than C. pseudotropicalis, C. krusei, or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pretreatment of C. albicans with chymotrypsin, pronase, or papain, but not pepsin, decreased adherence to Fn. Blocking experiments using mannan, sugars, or amino sugars were carried out by preabsorbing the Fn with each of the above-mentioned compounds. Candida mannan blocked adherence of C. albicans to Fn. The mannan effect was dose dependent. However, adherence of C. albicans to Fn was not significantly reduced by mannose, glucose, or several other sugars. The role of FN as a receptor for the binding of C. albicans yeast cells to buccal and vaginal epithelial cells was investigated also using an in vitro assay. We determined, using indirect fluorescent antibody techniques, that both buccal and vaginal epithelial cells possessed Fn. In addition, yeast cells, when pretreated with Fn, showed reduced adherence with buccal and vaginal cells when compared with nontreated cells. These studies may indicate a role for Fn in the adherence of C. albicans to buccal and vaginal epithelial cells.

17. Characterization of Candida albicans adherence to human vaginal epithelial cells in vitro.
Infect Immun. 1983 Sep;41(3):1024-30.
Lee JC, King RD. PMID: 6350176

Certain environmental, physical, and biochemical aspects of Candida albicans adherence to human vaginal epithelial cells were characterized by using an in vitro radiometric adherence assay. Blastospores harvested from cultures grown at 25 degrees C adhered to vaginal epithelial cells in significantly greater numbers than did blastospores isolated from cultures grown at 37 degrees C. C. albicans viability was not essential for adherence, but severe methods used to kill the blastospores did reduce their attachment. The addition of sodium chloride, divalent cations, sugars, mannan, or mannoprotein to the assay had no effect on attachment. Pretreatment of the blastospores with detergents, salts, urea, glycosidases, lipase, or pepsin did not affect adherence, but treatment with reducing agents or five proteolytic enzymes did render C. albicans nonadherent. Cell wall fragments prepared from C. albicans, but not from Candida krusei, adhered to vaginal epithelial cells. Loss of adherence after the cell walls were treated with alpha-mannosidase or papain suggests that cell wall mannoprotein is an essential component of the C. albicans adhesin.



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